Metric Science


by : Gerhard Jan Smit and Jelle Ebel van der Schoot



In this article a particle is being presented that explains all known forces of nature. The particle has no dimensions, it is a dimensional basic particle. Hence it gets the following name: dimensional basic (db or dimensional basic) particle. The core of this discovery is that the separate fundamental forces of nature: - the strong interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, the weak interaction and the gravitational interaction - are calculatable with one formula out of one principle. The statistical math of the quantum theory is set aside in favor of a goniometric approach. Gravitation is the only force that matters and the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the weak force can be explained out of gravitation while gravity itself is only caused by the curvature of dimensional basics.

The formula for the extent of curvature around a dimensional basic is: formula (0)
In the formula: x,y,z are coordinates in spacetime [m], Kr = curvature [m-1].

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Metric Science Resume

Introduction

It seems an impossibility to indicate the properties of a macroscopic object using quantum logic. The properties of microscopic elementary particles that are known at this time make this very difficult. Elementary particles have properties that cannot be defined or only in a complex way. One significant problem is that the gravity at the level of the elementary particles cannot be included into the Standard Model (Newton). This begs the question: How well do we understand the world at the atomic scale?

According to the current models the world is made up of particles; this includes electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are made up of constituent particles (quarks). Particles move under the influence of forces. Recognizable are the short distance force (weak interaction) and the long distance forces (strong, electromagnetic and gravitational interactions). There has been considerable progress in the search for a united theory of these forces. The description of all these particles and forces takes place within quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is not just another physical theory; it is a framework for all physical theories. Quantum mechanics describes the nature of the particles and the forces that interfere with each other from the particles.

In order to study the smallest building blocks of matter particle accelerators are used. In this method elementary particles are artificially accelerated and brought into collision with other particles, creating new particles. Through observation of their tracks (whether or not deflected into a magnetic field (only electrically charged particles)) and mutual collisions the properties of the particles can be studied. Does this provide us with a good picture of the world or is our picture a description of the results of these multiple experiments? Do the experiments supply a good fundamental description of the entity of the particles?

One would like an interpretation of quantum mechanics that corresponds with the experience in the macroscopic world and that is represented by classic mechanics. However, the classic world is in part not consistent with the world of quantum mechanics. This leads to essential questions. Can the universe be represented by quantum mechanics? It seems a reasonable expectation that the atoms in the universe would obey the laws of physics. Currently this doesn’t seem to be the case.

First of all, on the macro level there are observations of deviating speeds in galaxies. These speeds do not correspond with the directly observed matter and can only be explained by the presence of unknown mass called dark matter. From data of gravitational lenses there is strong evidence as to the presence of dark matter. These data suggest the presence of dark matter in clusters and around galaxies. Although this matter has never directly been observed the indirect evidence of its existence is overwhelming.

On a micro level too the questions are fundamental. For example, within quantum mechanics there is the unexplained phenomenon of entanglement. Two particles that simultaneously come into being – but are situated at a great distance from each other – each turn out to possess properties that correspond with each other. This would bring to mind a common cause in the classic sense. However, if the situation changes for one of the particles (e.g. the spin) then the situation will simultaneously change for the other particle. It seems as if from a distance an instantaneous transmission of information takes place. So this correlation between the two particles ostensibly goes beyond what is considered possible in classic physics. The fact that a particle does not choose a specific state until its observation (measuring) brought Einstein to remark: “God does not play dice.” It is clear that Einstein meant that there must be an underlying, understandable reason for the presumed transmission of information. However, to this day, a satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon has not been found.

There are also questions in which micro level and macro level both play a role. First there is the attraction of a photon by a gravitational field. A photon is deflected in its track by a heavy mass in space. Why does the photon obey to Einstein’s ideas of curbed spacetime? Traditionally the photon is considered to be massless, the reason why the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Then there is the gravitational redshift that a photon undergoes when close to an object with an enormous curvature. For example, on the event horizon of a black hole the redshift becomes extreme (infinite). Although both of these phenomena have been universally accepted and observed there is no full comprehension. Why does the photon undergo such a deflection and what is the mechanism of the gravitational redshift?

In this article an unconventional explanation is proposed which forms the foundation for the understanding of nuclear forces both on the micro as well as the macro scale.

Dimensional Basic

The axiom is that the most elementary particle in existence is the dimensional basic (db or dimensional basic). The dimensional basic itself has no dimensions (no length, no width and no height). The dimensional basic is found everywhere in the universe and is always moving through spacetime, where the speed of the movement of the dimensional basic, in respect to its surroundings, can have any value. The curvature of space on the location of the dimensional basic is infinite while time on the location of the dimensional basic stands still. The dimensional basic behaves like a black hole without dimensions. The dimensional basic is the building block of all that we perceive.

The formula for the extent of spacetime curvature around a dimensional basic is: formula (0)
In the formula: x,y,z are coordinates in spacetime [m], Kr = curvature [m-1].

Formula (0) describes the relative lessened extent of curvature of spacetime surrounding the dimensional basic.

Through agglomeration, or rather joint interaction, the dimensional basic-particles form phenomena that at a certain moment rise above the observational limit. The dimensional basic itself exists below the observational limit and so it cannot directly be demonstrated. The distance between the various dimensional basics varies in time by movements relative to each other. The directions of movements are being influenced by one another according to gravitational laws. The movement paths are being optically influenced for the outside observer by the curvatures of spacetime caused by the dimensional basics themselves. This means that time slows down while relative space around a dimensional basic becomes smaller when the dimensional basics are approaching each other. Time speeds up and relative space around a dimensional basic becomes larger when the dimensional basics go from one another.

The dimensional basic is different than other particles in that respect that other particles consist out of multiple dimensional basics while the dimensional basic itself is a singular particle. Each dimensional basic is a singularity (infinite curvature) on itself while other particles than the dimensional basic are a combination of multiple dimensional basics and thus a system of multiple singularities.

The observed forces (strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitation) have the same origin. The cause of these forces are because of the characteristics of a singular dimensional basic. The observed forces are in fact a sum of complex circular movements that come to exist when multiple dimensional basics interact with each other.

Coding the dimensional basic

Figure 1: The tracks of two interacting dimensional basics at different distances from each other (Original: Deflection of the tracks of a photon close to an object with a heavy mass).
Figure01
In figure 1 is shown how the movement tracks of photons react to the event horizon of a black hole. The same regularity applies to a binary black hole system. This is equal to the movement tracks of two dimensional basics in respect to each other with the difference that the two dimensional basics have no event horizon. The Pauli principle is never violated because the dimensional basics have no dimensions, they can approach each other, but can never touch each other. These movement tracks are equal in behavior to Newton’s laws of gravity. On the basis of that information the Borland C computer program ‘Newton’ has been developed. This computer programmed model shows the movement tracks of dimensional basics in three dimensional spacetime, in which the movement tracks of the dimensional basics follow the gravitational laws. A three dimensional snapshot with nine interacting dimensional basics is shown in figure 2. In this figure the Einsteinian bending of spacetime has not been taken into account. The computer program ‘Newton’ gives the possibility to show time delay in video, thus making clear the principle of time delay.

Figure 2: Three dimensional view of calculated movement tracks of nine dimensional basics during a random time.
Figure02

A second model that has been developed is the Borland C computer plot program ‘Einstein’. This computer program has been developed to show how spacetime around a dimensional basic is being bend as seen by an outside observer, the extent of bending calculated according to formula (0).

Just like one dimensional basic as a singular singularity causes bending of spacetime because of an infinite curvature, a multitude of dimensional basics will show a stronger bending of spacetime because of a sum of infinite curvatures. As Einstein made clear, we can speak of curbed spacetime instead of linear spacetime. The more mass an object has, the more spacetime bends. One can say that relative mass is the sum of the curvatures of a certain amount of dimensional basics close to each other in respect to their surroundings. In case of for example three billion clustered dimensional basics one can speak of three billion times infinite curvature. This makes it possible to isolate infinite numbers in comparison equations and thus clusters of dimensional basics can be expressed as an absolute number. A cluster of a certain amount of dimensional basics will have an absolute number of infinite curvatures. In this way one can speak of cluster A with X times infinite curvatures, while cluster B has Y times infinite curvatures. The infinities on both sides of the comparison can be done away with and only the absolute proportions of X and Y remain for the respective clusters. The curvature of a cluster of dimensional basics with an absolute amount of dimensional basics correlates with the relative mass of an object and a certain extent of bending of spacetime.

The extent of bending of spacetime is calculated using formula (0), where the extent of curvature on a specific position of spacetime is being calculated. A bigger curvature means that spacetime is more bended, whereas a smaller curvature means that spacetime is less bended.

An example of this is shown in figure 3. In figure 3 the plot of a cube of spacetime is shown. The Einsteinian bending of a cube of spacetime is made visual. While figure 3a shows no bending of spacetime because of the absence of a dimensional basic, the bending in a cube of spacetime, and thus deformed distances for an outside observer, in figure 3b have been calculated according to formula (0) because of the position of a dimensional basic in the center of the cube of spacetime. At the center of the six surfaces of the cube of spacetime the distance to the dimensional basic is the smallest, for the outside observer it appears that that piece of spacetime is closer to the dimensional basic than it should be in linear (uncurbed) spacetime, this because of the bending of spacetime, made visual by formula (0). Hence the pointy form of the corners of the cube of spacetime, there the distance to the dimensional basic is the biggest. Because of the bending of spacetime the distance is bigger for the outside observer than it should be according to a linear scale, this again made visual by calculating the extent of bending of spacetime according to formula (0). The closer spacetime is to a dimensional basic, the higher the curvature and the more spacetime will be bend.

Figure 3: Three dimensional calculated view of the bending of a cube of spacetime under the influence of a dimensional basic.
Uncurbed piece of spacetime Piece of spacetime curved by a db in the center
3a. Uncurbed (linear) cube of spacetime. 3b. Cube of spacetime curbed by the presence of a dimensional basic in the center.

Concluding:
The Newtonian gravitational laws represent the straight movement paths as being caused by the bending of spacetime. Thus Newton’s laws of gravity apply to the movement paths of the dimensional basic or a multitude of dimensional basics.
Both computer programs together represent the movement and character of the dimensional basic. The reality of the dimensional basic can be simulated by computer programs according to mathematical laws, taking into account the reality of formula (0) and the thereby caused bending of spacetime. A third model, incorporating formula (0) in the cartesian coordinate system, splitting the calculation of the bending of space and the delay of time, should be able to simulate the universe as a whole, calculating and visualizing the dimensional basic movement tracks with Einsteinian bending of space and delay of time. Whereas a model with an infinite amount of dimensional basics is practically not possible, a model with a subset of a large number of dimensional basics should be possible.

The Photon

Figure 4: The electromagnetic spectrum.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
When two dimensional basic-particles enter into the direct sphere of influence of each other’s curvature, a strong interaction will be formed between the two. This is comparable to a star-planet combination such as the sun and the earth (illustration 1a). The difference is that the dimensional basic-particles are without a dimension and with an infinite curvature in the center (illustration 1b). This indicates that time, for the outside observer, infinitely slows down when the particles approach each other. So the combination of the two dimensional basics has an enormous life span. The analogy of the curvatures around black holes is striking.

Illustration 1a: Earth in curvature field of sun. Illustration 1b: Depiction of curvatures 2-dimensional basic-particle.
Curvatures earth-sun-photon

To calculate the curvatures around a single dimensional basic we can use a simplification of formula (0):
Formula 1
In the formula: Kr = curvature [m-1], x = spacetime [m].

Formula (1) results in figure 5 shown below.

Figure 5: Absolute two dimensional schematic projection of the curvature strength around a dimensional basic where X is the distance in spacetime and Y is the amount of curvature (kr).
Figure Formula 1

( y:kromming = y:curvature , x:ruimte/tijd(afstand) = x:spacetime(distance) )

In figure 5 is shown how the curvature becomes smaller when the distance to the dimensional basic (on X=0) enlarges. In figure 6 the graphic of a two-dimensional basic-system is shown. Two or more dimensional basics result in a sum of curvatures on the spacetime surface between the dimensional basics. In figure 6 this is made clear by marking resultant curvature in greyshade. One can say that the relative mass of a two-dimensional basic-system is being caused by a stronger bending of spacetime between dimensional basic-particles.

Figure 6: Absolute two dimensional schematic projection of the curvature strength around a 2-dimensional basic-system where X is the distance in spacetime and Y is the amount of curvature (kr).

Figure Formula 1x2

( y:kromming = y:curvature , x:ruimte/tijd(afstand) = x:spacetime(distance) )

The hypothesis is that the 2-dimensional basic-particle is a photon. A calculation of curvatures that the observer can detect is shown in figure 7. The wavelength of the photon is equal to the distance λ between both particles. A schematic depiction of a photon and its movement in spacetime is shown in figure 8.

Figure 7: Three dimensional calculations of the curvatures of a 2-dimensional basic-particle (photon).

7a. Photon (greyscale). 7b. Photon (blue is high curvature, red is low cuvature). 7c. Photon (each dimensional basic its own color).

Figure 8: Schematic projection of a photon.
Schematic Depiction Photon

(kromming rondom 1db = curvature around 1db, beweging foton in ruimte/tijd = movement photon in spacetime)

The curvature rises when the wavelength gets smaller (gamma photon 0,001 nm: Kr = 4,0x1012 m-1). The curvature drops when the wavelength gets bigger (visible light 620 nm, Kr = 6,5x106 m-1).

The speed of a photon

The speed of a photon in vacuum is 299 792 458 ms-1. In a medium like water, air or glass the speed will seem to be slower. This seems to be caused by higher curvatures close to particles the photon meets on its way through these materials. Below you will find an animation in which photons have tracks through different curvature fields (Anim. 1). Note that the photons have different speeds on different positions for the outside observer, depending on the experienced curvature. When you are traveling on the back of a photon you will not experience a delay, you will travel with constant speed.

Anim. 1 : Schematical view of two dimensional plane speed differences of multiple photons moving through different curvature fields as seen for an outside observer.
Photonic Movement

In a more realistic way the principle of apparent speed-delay is shown in Animation 2. Here we see two photons traveling within the curvatures of a huge object. In this example the blue photon had no significant interaction with curvatures of the smaller object. We can state that the distance of the blue photon to the smaller object is relatively big. The red photon finds the smaller object in its track and is temporary caught by the curvatures of this object. The track of the red photon will give the outside observer the impression that the red photon is traveling slower than the blue photon but in fact it is traveling with constant speed.

Anim. 2 : Schematical view of three dimensional plane speed difference of two photons moving through different curvature fields as seen for an outside observer.
Photonic Movement

Cosmological consequences of the photon as a two-dimensional basic-system

It is clear that a moving 2-dimensional basic-particle – under the influence of a nearby object with an extreme curvature – will have a deflected track. This is in fact what is observed (see figure 1). If a photon on its track is influenced by curvatures caused by other particles, the photon will be brought out of balance. This means that the movement tracks in time of the internal two dimensional basics will become centrifugal spiral shaped, i.e. the enlargement of the radius of its internal circular movement. Under the influence of extreme curvatures the photon will undergo a wavelength shift. We call this “the aging of the photon”. Because both dimensional basic-particles experience an enormous curvature via each other within the photon this is an extremely slow process for the observer. But during a trip through spacetime lasting many light-years (e.g. 10 billion light-years) the effect can be seen by the observer.

The redshift at a certain moment in time is given through the following formula:
Red Shift Formula

To date, the observed cosmic redshift in the universe has been explained mostly through the hypothetical expansion of the universe. The redshift is explained as a Doppler effect but it seems that the cosmic redshift is the result of the aging of the photon. This effect takes place when photons have traveled extreme distances (e.g. 10 billion light years) in spacetime. As mentioned before, the aging of the photons is caused by the proximity of curvatures which the photon encounters in transit. As previously stated, these curvatures are present everywhere in the universe as dimensional basics. The observed redshift is in fact a gravitational redshift. A direct conclusion could be that there is no such thing as an expansion of the universe. The observations of a seemingly accelerated expanding universe can be explained by the aging of the photon and thus there are doubts concerning the validity of the hypothesis of dark energy being responsible for the expanding of the universe at an accelerating rate.

It is important to note that the large amounts of dimensional basics are responsible for the observed presence of dark energy and dark matter. The dimensional basics are in fact the sought after dark matter. This can explain the deviating speeds of galaxies. The movements in space can be explained in a Newtonian way. The by Einstein suggested cosmological constant in the theory of relativity is in fact a resumptive description of the presence of dimensional basics. Einstein later on rejected his own suggestion on the basis of “Hubbles Law”. It seems that his suggestion indeed was right.

Figure 9: Dark Matter: Seven dimensional basics (respectively: greyscale is depth, curvature range where red represents relative low curvature while blue represents relative high curvature, individual curvature range for each dimensional basic).
Seven Dark Matter Particles

The dimensional basic plays a crucial role in the explanation of fluctuations in the spectrum of cosmic background radiation. The matter responsible has never before been observed. We believe that the types of the cosmic background are formed through the mutual interaction of the 1-dimensional basic-particles. This sometimes causes photons of completely different wavelengths to be formed, which together cause the pattern of cosmic background radiation.

Black Holes

Under the influence of extreme curvatures in space the aging of a photon can accelerate greatly. This is observable near black holes (see figure 10). The closer the track of a photon to a black hole, the greater the aging. In fact, close to an event horizon (Schwartschild scale) of a black hole the aging (gravitational redshift) is infinite.

Figure 10: Three dimensional calculated view of the curvatures of a photon under the influence of an externally large curvature.
Torn Photon

In our universe photons have a certain range for λ (range approximately 1000 nm up to 1 x 10-3 nm). They are part of the electromagnetic spectrum where λ can have any value between zero and infinity. In our universe λ cannot be higher than the size of our universe. It might be that in a black hole the particles sequence of our universe repeats itself within a range of λ that is much smaller than the λ we can detect on earth. Theoretically λ in this black hole cannot be bigger than the size of this black hole. In our universe there is a limit to density of dimensional basics, culminating in a black hole when the density gets beyond a boundary because of the high quantity of dimensional basic-particles. The curvature of the black hole depends on the size of the black hole and is a result of its internal dimensional basic quantity. Also here the Pauli principle will not be violated since the dimensional basic-particle will never get in the same position as another dimensional basic-particle. They can get close in a circling way while under the influence of each other’s curvature. We can say that what appears to be instantaneous and linear in time and space for particles involved will appear to be a slow process for an outside observer. This means that within a black hole time will operate at a different level. The increasing curvature in the black hole system makes that time slows down for the outside observer.

Imagine that if the λ range of the electromagnetic spectrum is not infinite in our universe, our universe is not infinite in spacetime and our universe may be a black hole for an observer above our universe. This observer is living in a universe where all the particles operate within a range that is much larger than ours. For this observer things on earth move rather slow. This observer could also tell if the black hole that our universe is would have a spin and the observer might observe that because of that spin there is a favorable direction in which dimensional basics move, what might be the underlying cause for our universe to exist dominantly out of “right handed” particles (for example electrons instead of positrons).

Electrons

Figure 11: Three dimensional calculated views of the curvatures of an electron/positron (respectively: greyscale is depth, curvature range where red represents relative low curvature while blue represents relative high curvature, individual curvature range for each dimensional basic ).
Electron-Positron

When a photon with a speed of approximately 299 792 458 ms-1 moves through spacetime, the internal movement tracks of the 1-dimensional basics are right-angled to this movement. If a change of direction of this movement in respect to its internal dimensional basic movement takes place, this speed will be put in the spin of the photon. The hypothesis is that this photon with an extra internal spin is an electron.

Observations have shown that a positron and an electron are annihilated which causes two gamma-photons to be released. This is depicted in the Feynman diagram below (figure 12).

Figure 12: Feynman diagram annihilation positron and electron.
Feynmann

At a confrontation between an electron and a positron a true annihilation does not take place. However, an “extinguishing” of both spins does take place in which the 2-dimensional basic-particles start to behave like gamma-photons. So this still refers to the same 2-dimensional basic-particles. The Feynman diagram can also be read in reverse. Two gamma-photons together form a positron and an electron. Each of the photons is made up of two dimensional basic-particles with only a rotation around the y-axis (see figure 8). The electron is a 2-dimensional basic-particle with an extra spin (towards the photon) around the x-axis (clockwise). The positron is also a 2-dimensional basic-particle with an extra spin around the x-axis, but counter-clockwise. This is depicted in figure 13. The photon is easy to imagine as a plate. The electron (or positron) can be imagined as a sphere.

Figure 13: Schematic depiction electron and positron.
Electron-Positron

(kromming rondom 1db = curvature around 1db)

Quarks, protons and neutrons

Literature describes quarks as constituent particles. The quarks can occur in various ways. In a proton or a neutron one can see multiple quarks that are oriented up or down. A proton is known to consist of three quarks, two of which are up (2 Qu) and one down (1 Qd).
In our view a quark is an interaction between three 1-dimensional basics. A calculation of curvatures as seen by the outside observer is shown in figure 14.

Figure 14: Three dimensional calculations of the curvatures of a quark.

14a. Quark (greyscale). 14b. Quark (blue is high curvature, red is low curvature). 14c. Quark (each dimensional basic its own color).

Three dimensional calculated snapshots of the internal dimensional basic movement of a quark in spacetime can be seen in figure 15.

Figure 15: Three dimensional calculations of the internal movement tracks of dimensional basics inside a quark.

15a. Quark, time = 1 . 15b. Quark, time = 2. 15c. Quark, time = 3.

A neutron is unstable and rapidly dissociates into an electron, a proton and an electron-anti-neutrino.

Neutron Decay

From this comparison is inferred that a neutron loses a quark during its disassociation into a proton. The withdrawing quark (that consists of three dimensional basics) is very unstable and will immediately disassociate into an electron (2-dimensional basic) and an anti-neutrino (1-dimensional basic). The anti-neutrino is in fact a 1-dimensional basic-particle that leaves the system of three (3-dimensional basic/quark) and in an ultra-short time displays an extra curvature in its immediate surroundings. This is observed as the anti-neutrino. The electron proves observable while the proton also forms.

We conclude from this that a neutron consists of a foursome of quarks. Of these, two quarks are up and two quarks are down. This also explains the fact that, different from the proton, the neutron does not show a positively oriented field. The disassociation into a proton takes place during the expelling of a down quark.

Thus a neutron consists of two up-quarks and two down-quarks (Qu, Qd, Qu, Qd). A calculation of the curvatures within a neutron is shown in figure 19. A proton consists of two up-quarks and one down-quark (Qu, Qu, Qd). A calculation of the curvatures within a proton is shown in figure 16.

Figure 16: Three dimensional calculated view of the curvatures of a proton as seen for an outside observer.
Proton - Greyscale Proton - Colorscale

Concluding: During the disassociation into a proton the following happens:

Figure 17: Disassociation neutron into a proton, electron and 1dimensional basic.
Neutron Decay
(verval = decay, instabiel = unstable)

In principle the proton is very stable. Yet it can be said that during the disassociation of a proton this will take place as follows:

Figure 18: Disassociation proton into a positron, 2 gamma-photons and 3x1dimensional basic.
Proton Decay
(verval = decay, instabiel = unstable)

At a disassociation the proton will result in a positron, two gamma-photons and three 1-dimensional basic-particles. In an ultra-short time these 1-dimensional basic-particles will display an extra curvature in the immediate surroundings. These are observed as anti-neutrinos. The described disassociation can in fact be observed by physicists. This provides our theory with evidence within the current observations.

Figure 19: Three dimensional calculated view of the curvatures of a neutron as seen for an outside observer.
Neutron - Greyscale Neutron - Colorscale

More complex particles

In more complex particles, the mutual interactions will become more and more complicated. These particles – rationalized from the basis – can be mathematically determined and simulated. Within these simulations we expect that the previously mentioned entanglements of particles can be explained. The entanglement is possible because particles (whether constituent or not) can be under the influence of each other’s curvatures. This phenomenon can take place at very large distances. Such a situation will – caused by the relatively weak curvature – be unstable and experience a rapid disassociation. Because the entanglement is caused by curvatures, changes that one of the “partner-particles” experiences will instantaneously be experienced by the other “partner-particle.” Thus, there is an underlying, understandable reason for the observed transmission (no playing dice).

The principle of Einsteinian bending of spacetime is found within particles. When curvatures get extreme because of short distances within particles the outside observer will find that elements of the particle seem to come to a full stop. This seems the case for the outside observer but the inner particles (dimensional basics, quarks, protons, neutrons) are still racing through spacetime with enormous speed.

Figure 20: Three dimensional calculated view of the curvatures of a deuterium core as seen for an outside observer.
Deuterium - Greyscale Deuterium - Colorscale

The core of a deuterium atom exists only out of one proton and one neutron. In figure 20 the curvatures of a deuterium core are shown. To the left the proton, to the middle/right the neutron. Remarkable is that the quark in the middle seems to be smaller than the surrounding quarks, this is the effect of a locally enlarged curvature of spacetime. The proton and the neutron within their own complex movement tend to the configuration as shown in figure 20. The timing within the described process is depicted in animation 3. In animation 3 the proton is held statically. The observer is theoretically situated on the proton. The proton and the neutron tend to circle in each other’s curvature as shown in animation 3. In a Newtonian way they will approach each other as shown and then remove from one another. We can say that what appears to be instantaneous and linear in time and space for the proton and the neutron will appear to be a slow process for an outside observer. When the distance between the proton and the neutron becomes more narrow the movements seems to slow down for the outside observer. Movements seem to speed up again when the distance between the proton and the neutron gets bigger. The nearest point appears to be an “anchor” for the outside observer. Speed seems to come here to a full stop because of extreme curvatures. The half-life of the deuterium is unknown. The deuterium core appears to be stable but it is all a matter of perspective.

Anim. 3: Schematic view of the trajectory of a neutron to a proton.
Trajectory proton to neutron

Electromagnetic fields

Electromagnetic fields around an energized wire behave like fluids within a centrifugal pump. This type of pump has been developed in the end of the 17th century by Denis Papin. If the fan of a centrifugal pump begins to rotate the fluid within the fan will get a tangential speed (= speed in the direction of the periphery). The centrifugal force that hereby arises makes the fluid being pushed to the outer periphery of the fan. In this the mechanical energy (the rotation of the fan) is being converted into potential and kinetic energy. In analogy to, the electrons (who all have a like-minded spin) will be hurled to the outer periphery of the wire. On the outside of the wire the curvatures caused by the electrons will be large. Through these curvatures the 1-dimensional basic-particles will be sucked in. This causes a whirlwind of 1-dimensional basic-particles which will rotate around the energized wire. This causes the electromagnetic fields with their attractive force. This process is depicted in figure 21. By winding an energized wire in a coil the electromagnetic forces are being cumulated, this resulting in the fields as observed around an energized coil. This process is depicted in figure 22. When positrons are send through a wire the fields will show an opposite direction with respect to the fields caused by electrons.

Figure 21: Schematic view of electromagnetic fields around an energized wire.
Electrons through wire

Figure 22: Schematic view of electromagnetic fields in and around an energized coil.
Electrons through electromagnetic fields

Memorandum about quantum field theory (QFT)

Most physicists approach questions around the electromagnetic according to the quantum field theory. The quantum field theory (QFT) is meant to setup a quantum mechanical theory of the electromagnetic fields. With the QFT quantum degrees of freedom in space (particle states) are being indexed. Then symmetric quantum states together form a quantum field. The particles behave identical and together are the cause of a resulting quantum field (electromagnetic field). The current quantum field theory is not mathematical rigorous. The last decades several attempts have been made to place quantum field theory on a solid mathematical base by formulating a set of axioms for it. Finding the right axioms still is an open and difficult mathematical problem. This is one of the Millennium prize problems.

The curvatures around a particle are fundamental for arousing an electromagnetic quantum field. There is a symmetry that creates a symmetric field as described in the QFT. There is however little reason for the description and the use of symmetric (bosonic) or anti-symmetric (fermionic) states. The arousing of an electromagnetic field can completely and fully be understood from the perspective of Einstein’s teachings of curvatures. The field will occur when particles like electrons accumulate at a specific position or in a specific movement. This will instantly lead to the attraction of dimensional basic-particles by which a quantum field can be observed.

Beauty in the order

To us, this model constitutes a good candidate for a new foundation to represent the observed particles and forces. The short distance force (weak) and the long distance forces (strong, electromagnetic and gravitational) can be explained from the described curvatures.

We are amazed by the simplicity and the beauty of all this. The first words “Let there be light.” (Genesis) are remarkable. The photon is the first reaction that rises above our observation level. After that all phenomena can be derived according to a relatively simple concept. The world can be described with Newton and Einstein. Reflecting out of this basis one arrives at explanations for a multitude of phenomena. All observed interactions can be explained using this simple model. This has in fact always been the expectation of the great physicists. A simple model that can explain the forces of nature, this theory realizes all expectations. This discovery in the area of physics of elementary particles demonstrates that order is the basis of creation. We are of the opinion that we are looking at the fundamentals of the structure, but the mystery of life remains.

We express special gratitude to Democritus, Newton, Einstein, and for the remainder to God, who does not play dice.

(C) Gerhard Jan Smit, Jelle Ebel van der Schoot, 21st february 2018, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.









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