According to the current models the world is made up of particles; this includes electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are made up of constituent particles (quarks). Particles move under the influence of forces. Recognizable are the short distance force (weak interaction) and the long distance forces (strong, electromagnetic and gravitational interactions). There has been considerable progress in the search for a united theory of these forces. The description of all these particles and forces takes place within quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is not just another physical theory; it is a framework for all physical theories. Quantum mechanics describes the nature of the particles and the forces that interfere with each other from the particles.

In order to study the smallest building blocks of matter particle accelerators are used. In this method elementary particles are artificially accelerated and brought into collision with other particles, creating new particles. Through observation of their tracks (whether or not deflected into a magnetic field (only electrically charged particles)) and mutual collisions the properties of the particles can be studied. Does this provide us with a good picture of the world or is our picture a description of the results of these multiple experiments? Do the experiments supply a good fundamental description of the entity of the particles?

One would like an interpretation of quantum mechanics that corresponds with the experience in the macroscopic world and that is represented by classic mechanics. However, the classic world is in part not consistent with the world of quantum mechanics. This leads to essential questions. Can the universe be represented by quantum mechanics? It seems a reasonable expectation that the atoms in the universe would obey the laws of physics. Currently this doesn’t seem to be the case.

First of all, on the

On a

There are also questions in which

In this article an unconventional explanation is proposed which forms the foundation for the understanding of nuclear forces both on the micro as well as the macro scale.

The formula for the extent of spacetime curvature around a is:

In the formula: x,y,z are coordinates in spacetime [m], Kr = curvature [m

Formula (0) describes the relative lessened extent of curvature of spacetime surrounding the .

Through agglomeration, or rather joint interaction, the -particles form phenomena that at a certain moment rise above the observational limit. The itself exists below the observational limit and so it cannot directly be demonstrated. The distance between the various s varies in time by movements relative to each other. The directions of movements are being influenced by one another according to gravitational laws. The movement paths are being optically influenced for the outside observer by the curvatures of spacetime caused by the s themselves. This means that time slows down while relative space around a becomes smaller when the s are approaching each other. Time speeds up and relative space around a becomes larger when the s go from one another.

The is different than other particles in that respect that other particles consist out of multiple s while the itself is a singular particle. Each is a singularity (infinite curvature) on itself while other particles than the are a combination of multiple s and thus a system of multiple singularities.

The observed forces (strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitation) have the same origin. The cause of these forces are because of the characteristics of a singular . The observed forces are in fact a sum of complex circular movements that come to exist when multiple s interact with each other.

In figure 1 is shown how the movement tracks of photons react to the event horizon of a black hole. The same regularity applies to a binary black hole system. This is equal to the movement tracks of two s in respect to each other with the difference that the two s have no event horizon. The Pauli principle is never violated because the s have no dimensions, they can approach each other, but can never touch each other. These movement tracks are equal in behavior to Newton’s laws of gravity. On the basis of that information the Borland C computer program ‘Newton’ has been developed. This computer programmed model shows the movement tracks of s in three dimensional spacetime, in which the movement tracks of the s follow the gravitational laws. A three dimensional snapshot with nine interacting s is shown in figure 2. In this figure the Einsteinian bending of spacetime has not been taken into account. The computer program ‘Newton’ gives the possibility to show time delay in video, thus making clear the principle of time delay.

Figure 2: Three dimensional view of calculated movement tracks of nine s during a random time.

A second model that has been developed is the Borland C computer plot program ‘Einstein’. This computer program has been developed to show how spacetime around a is being bend as seen by an outside observer, the extent of bending calculated according to formula (0).

Just like one as a singular singularity causes bending of spacetime because of an infinite curvature, a multitude of s will show a stronger bending of spacetime because of a sum of infinite curvatures. As Einstein made clear, we can speak of curbed spacetime instead of linear spacetime. The more mass an object has, the more spacetime bends. One can say that relative mass is the sum of the curvatures of a certain amount of s close to each other in respect to their surroundings. In case of for example three billion clustered s one can speak of three billion times infinite curvature. This makes it possible to isolate infinite numbers in comparison equations and thus clusters of s can be expressed as an absolute number. A cluster of a certain amount of s will have an absolute number of infinite curvatures. In this way one can speak of cluster A with X times infinite curvatures, while cluster B has Y times infinite curvatures. The infinities on both sides of the comparison can be done away with and only the absolute proportions of X and Y remain for the respective clusters. The curvature of a cluster of s with an absolute amount of s correlates with the relative mass of an object and a certain extent of bending of spacetime.

The extent of bending of spacetime is calculated using formula (0), where the extent of curvature on a specific position of spacetime is being calculated. A bigger curvature means that spacetime is more bended, whereas a smaller curvature means that spacetime is less bended.

An example of this is shown in figure 3. In figure 3 the plot of a cube of spacetime is shown. The Einsteinian bending of a cube of spacetime is made visual. While figure 3a shows no bending of spacetime because of the absence of a , the bending in a cube of spacetime, and thus deformed distances for an outside observer, in figure 3b have been calculated according to formula (0) because of the position of a in the center of the cube of spacetime. At the center of the six surfaces of the cube of spacetime the distance to the is the smallest, for the outside observer it appears that that piece of spacetime is closer to the than it should be in linear (uncurbed) spacetime, this because of the bending of spacetime, made visual by formula (0). Hence the pointy form of the corners of the cube of spacetime, there the distance to the is the biggest. Because of the bending of spacetime the distance is bigger for the outside observer than it should be according to a linear scale, this again made visual by calculating the extent of bending of spacetime according to formula (0). The closer spacetime is to a , the higher the curvature and the more spacetime will be bend.

Figure 3: Three dimensional calculated view of the bending of a cube of spacetime under the influence of a .

Concluding:

The Newtonian gravitational laws represent the straight movement paths as being caused by the bending of spacetime. Thus Newton’s laws of gravity apply to the movement paths of the or a multitude of s.

Both computer programs together represent the movement and character of the . The reality of the can be simulated by computer programs according to mathematical laws, taking into account the reality of formula (0) and the thereby caused bending of spacetime. A third model, incorporating formula (0) in the cartesian coordinate system, splitting the calculation of the bending of space and the delay of time, should be able to simulate the universe as a whole, calculating and visualizing the movement tracks with Einsteinian bending of space and delay of time. Whereas a model with an infinite amount of s is practically not possible, a model with a subset of a large number of s should be possible.

Illustration 1a: Earth in curvature field of sun. Illustration 1b: Depiction of curvatures 2--particle.

To calculate the curvatures around a single we can use a simplification of formula (0):

In the formula: Kr = curvature [m

Formula (1) results in figure 4 shown below.

Figure 4: Absolute two dimensional schematic projection of the curvature strength around a where X is the distance in spacetime and Y is the amount of curvature (kr).

( y:kromming = y:curvature , x:ruimte/tijd(afstand) = x:spacetime(distance) )

In figure 4 is shown how the curvature becomes smaller when the distance to the (on X=0) enlarges. In figure 5 the graphic of a two--system is shown. Two or more s result in a sum of curvatures on the spacetime surface between the s. In figure 5 this is made clear by marking resultant curvature in greyshade. One can say that the relative mass of a two--system is being caused by a stronger bending of spacetime between -particles.

Figure 5: Absolute two dimensional schematic projection of the curvature strength around a 2--system where X is the distance in spacetime and Y is the amount of curvature (kr).

( y:kromming = y:curvature , x:ruimte/tijd(afstand) = x:spacetime(distance) )

The hypothesis is that the 2--particle is a photon. A calculation of curvatures that the observer can detect is shown in figure 6. The wavelength of the photon is equal to the distance λ between both particles. A schematic depiction of a photon and its movement in spacetime is shown in figure 7.

Figure 6: Three dimensional calculations of the curvatures of a 2--particle (photon).

Figure 7: Schematic projection of a photon.

(kromming rondom 1db = curvature around 1db, beweging foton in ruimte/tijd = movement photon in spacetime)

The curvature rises when the wavelength gets smaller (gamma photon 0,001 nm: Kr = 4,0x10

Anim. 1 : Schematical view of two dimensional plane speed differences of multiple photons moving through different curvature fields as seen for an outside observer.

In a more realistic way the principle of apparent speed-delay is shown in Animation 2. Here we see two photons traveling within the curvatures of a huge object. In this example the blue photon had no significant interaction with curvatures of the smaller object. We can state that the distance of the blue photon to the smaller object is relatively big. The red photon finds the smaller object in its track and is temporary caught by the curvatures of this object. The track of the red photon will give the outside observer the impression that the red photon is traveling slower than the blue photon but in fact it is traveling with constant speed.

Anim. 2 : Schematical view of three dimensional plane speed difference of two photons moving through different curvature fields as seen for an outside observer.

The redshift at a certain moment in time is given through the following formula:

To date, the observed cosmic redshift in the universe has been explained mostly through the hypothetical expansion of the universe. The redshift is explained as a Doppler effect but it seems that the cosmic redshift is the result of the aging of the photon. This effect takes place when photons have traveled extreme distances (e.g. 10 billion light years) in spacetime. As mentioned before, the aging of the photons is caused by the proximity of curvatures which the photon encounters in transit. As previously stated, these curvatures are present everywhere in the universe as s. The observed redshift is in fact a gravitational redshift. A direct conclusion could be that there is no such thing as an expansion of the universe. The observations of a seemingly accelerated expanding universe can be explained by the aging of the photon and thus there are doubts concerning the validity of the hypothesis of dark energy being responsible for the expanding of the universe at an accelerating rate.

It is important to note that the large amounts of s are responsible for the observed presence of dark energy and dark matter. The s are in fact the sought after dark matter. This can explain the deviating speeds of galaxies. The movements in space can be explained in a Newtonian way. The by Einstein suggested cosmological constant in the theory of relativity is in fact a resumptive description of the presence of s. Einstein later on rejected his own suggestion on the basis of “Hubbles Law”. It seems that his suggestion indeed was right.

Figure 8: Dark Matter: Seven s (respectively: greyscale is depth, curvature range where red represents relative low curvature while blue represents relative high curvature, individual curvature range for each ).

The plays a crucial role in the explanation of fluctuations in the spectrum of cosmic background radiation. The matter responsible has never before been observed. We believe that some types of the cosmic background are formed through the mutual interaction of the 1--particles. This sometimes causes photons of completely different wavelengths to be formed, which together cause the pattern of cosmic background radiation.

Figure 9: Three dimensional calculated view of the curvatures of a photon under the influence of an externally large curvature.

In our universe photons have a certain range for λ (range approximately 1000 nm up to 1 x 10

Imagine that if the λ range of the electromagnetic spectrum is not infinite in our universe, our universe is not infinite in spacetime and our universe may be a black hole for an observer above our universe. This observer is living in a universe where all the particles operate within a range that is much larger than ours. For this observer things on earth move rather slow. This observer could also tell if the black hole that our universe is would have a spin and the observer might observe that because of that spin there is a favorable direction in which s move, what might be the underlying cause for our universe to exist dominantly out of “right handed” particles (for example electrons instead of positrons).

When a photon with a speed of approximately 299 792 458 ms

Observations have shown that a positron and an electron are annihilated which causes two gamma-photons to be released. This is depicted in the Feynman diagram below (figure 12).

Figure 11: Feynman diagram annihilation positron and electron.

At a confrontation between an electron and a positron a true annihilation does not take place. However, an “extinguishing” of both spins does take place in which the 2--particles start to behave like gamma-photons. So this still refers to the same 2--particles. The Feynman diagram can also be read in reverse. Two gamma-photons together form a positron and an electron. Each of the photons is made up of two -particles with only a rotation around the y-axis (see figure 7). The electron is a 2--particle with an extra spin (towards the photon) around the x-axis (clockwise). The positron is also a 2--particle with an extra spin around the x-axis, but counter-clockwise. This is depicted in figure 12. The photon is easy to imagine as a plate. The electron (or positron) can be imagined as a sphere.

Figure 12: Schematic depiction electron and positron.

(kromming rondom 1db = curvature around 1db)

In our view a quark is an interaction between three 1-s. A calculation of curvatures as seen by the outside observer is shown in figure 13.

Figure 13: Three dimensional calculations of the curvatures of a quark.

Three dimensional calculated snapshots of the internal movement of a quark in spacetime can be seen in Animation 3.

Anim. 3: Three dimensional calculations of the internal movement tracks of s inside a quark.

A neutron is unstable and rapidly dissociates into an electron, a proton and an electron-anti-neutrino.

From this comparison is inferred that a neutron loses a quark during its disassociation into a proton. The withdrawing quark (that consists of three s) is very unstable and will immediately disassociate into an electron (2-) and an anti-neutrino (1-). The anti-neutrino is in fact a 1--particle that leaves the system of three (3-/quark) and in an ultra-short time displays an extra curvature in its immediate surroundings. This is observed as the anti-neutrino. The electron proves observable while the proton also forms.

We conclude from this that a neutron consists of a foursome of quarks. Of these, two quarks are up and two quarks are down. This also explains the fact that, different from the proton, the neutron does not show a positively oriented field. The disassociation into a proton takes place during the expelling of a down quark.

Thus a neutron consists of two up-quarks and two down-quarks (Qu, Qd, Qu, Qd). A calculation of the curvatures within a neutron is shown in figure 17. A proton consists of two up-quarks and one down-quark (Qu, Qu, Qd). A calculation of the curvatures within a proton is shown in figure 14.

Figure 14: Three dimensional calculated view of the curvatures of a proton as seen for an outside observer.

Concluding: During the disassociation into a proton the following happens:

Figure 15: Disassociation neutron into a proton, electron and 1.

(verval = decay, instabiel = unstable)

In principle the proton is very stable. Yet it can be said that during the disassociation of a proton this will take place as follows:

Figure 16: Disassociation proton into a positron, 2 gamma-photons and 3x1.

(verval = decay, instabiel = unstable)

At a disassociation the proton will result in a positron, two gamma-photons and three 1--particles. In an ultra-short time these 1--particles will display an extra curvature in the immediate surroundings. These are observed as anti-neutrinos. The described disassociation can in fact be observed by physicists. This provides our theory with evidence within the current observations.

Figure 17: Three dimensional calculated view of the curvatures of a neutron as seen for an outside observer.

The principle of Einsteinian bending of spacetime is found within particles. When curvatures get extreme because of short distances within particles the outside observer will find that elements of the particle seem to come to a full stop. This seems the case for the outside observer but the inner particles (s, quarks, protons, neutrons) are still racing through spacetime with enormous speed.

Figure 18: Three dimensional calculated view of the curvatures of a deuterium core as seen for an outside observer.

The core of a deuterium atom exists only out of one proton and one neutron. In figure 18 the curvatures of a deuterium core are shown. To the left the proton, to the middle/right the neutron. Remarkable is that the quark in the middle seems to be smaller than the surrounding quarks, this is the effect of a locally enlarged curvature of spacetime. The proton and the neutron within their own complex movement tend to the configuration as shown in figure 18. The timing within the described process is depicted in Animation 4. In Animation 4 the proton is held statically. The observer is theoretically situated on the proton. The proton and the neutron tend to circle in each other’s curvature as shown in Animation 4. In a Newtonian way they will approach each other as shown and then remove from one another. We can say that what appears to be instantaneous and linear in time and space for the proton and the neutron will appear to be a slow process for an outside observer. When the distance between the proton and the neutron becomes more narrow the movements seems to slow down for the outside observer. Movements seem to speed up again when the distance between the proton and the neutron gets bigger. The nearest point appears to be an “anchor” for the outside observer. Speed seems to come here to a full stop because of extreme curvatures. The half-life of the deuterium is unknown. The deuterium core appears to be stable but it is all a matter of perspective.

Anim. 4: Schematic view of the trajectory of a neutron to a proton.

Figure 19: Schematic view of electromagnetic fields around an energized wire.

Figure 20: Schematic view of electromagnetic fields in and around an energized coil.

The curvatures around a particle are fundamental for arousing an electromagnetic quantum field. There is a symmetry that creates a symmetric field as described in the QFT. There is however little reason for the description and the use of symmetric (bosonic) or anti-symmetric (fermionic) states. The arousing of an electromagnetic field can completely and fully be understood from the perspective of Einstein’s teachings of curvatures. The field will occur when particles like electrons accumulate at a specific position or in a specific movement. This will instantly lead to the attraction of -particles by which a quantum field can be observed.

We are amazed by the simplicity and the beauty of all this. The first words “Let there be light.” (Genesis) are remarkable. The photon is the first reaction that rises above our observation level. After that all phenomena can be derived according to a relatively simple concept. The world can be described with Newton and Einstein. Reflecting out of this basis one arrives at explanations for a multitude of phenomena. All observed interactions can be explained using this simple model. This has in fact always been the expectation of the great physicists. A simple model that can explain the forces of nature, this theory realizes all expectations. This discovery in the area of physics of elementary particles demonstrates that order is the basis of creation. We are of the opinion that we are looking at the fundamentals of the structure, but the mystery of life remains.

We express special gratitude to Democritus, Newton, Einstein, and for the remainder to God, who does not play dice.

Authors: Gerhard Jan Smit, Jelle Ebel van der Schoot, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

© 2016, legally registered 21st november 2016, version 2.0: 21st januari 2018.